Nursing diagnosis for diabetes

A diabetic patient must be completely educated and aware of the nursing diagnosis for diabetes; it is the most common found disease or a symptom in most of the people in the modern age. This is the condition that arises in a person because of high level of sugar in the blood or for the fact that cells in the body are not responding adequately to the insulin and at times both the mentioned reason can be the cause of diabetes in the person.

Diabetes in nature are categorized into different types; the first one is the most common one when the insulin required for proper functioning of the body is not adequately produced, in such condition a person can be diagnosed with diabetes. Another type of diabetes involves when a person’s body is not able to produce insulin at all, however these conditions has a preventive cure available in the market in form of insulin injections but still people with this condition has to be extra careful in what they eat and what they do. The person nursing diagnosis for diabetes must regulate a careful check on the health and eating habits, as this is the condition that can have a severe effect on proper functioning of the body;

Diabetes Path

How diabetes hinders the daily activities of the person:

• The first sign of a diabetic patient is the increased level of blood pressure in the body; the person can easily fall into the condition of hypertension if proper preventive cure is not taken.

• The normal day to day functioning of the person gets impacted because of this medical condition, a diabetic patient experiences a weak eye-vision and can develop hearing problems.

• Skin disorientation is another symptom that is observed in the person, who is in the state of diabetes.

• The biggest threat of diabetes comes to a person’s heart. The functioning of the heart gets effected if the level of glucose in the blood is increased causing person an irregular heart beat.

• Person in diabetic condition is more likely to fall in situations of depression and anxiety than the normal person.

Irregular eating habits, disturbed sleeping patterns and lack of exercise are the most common observed reasons that triggers this symptom in today’s modern way of living but like other harmful medical conditions, there are effective diabetes nursing diagnosis for that are available in the medical field, through proper medical check-up a person can come to know about this condition and by using some easy to follow preventive steps this medical condition can be successfully combated and suppressed.

How Diabetes can be controlled and prevented:

• The insulin injections are available at all the medical centers help people to inject necessary amount of insulin in the patients, whose bodies are not able to create necessary amount of insulin.

• Proper check on weight must be kept at all the time, obesity is the prime reason for this condition among the people, body requires proper nutrients to function elegantly and those nutrients must not be substituted with junk food.

• There are some effective tablets available in the medical centers that have no side effects and offers good results on the body, after proper consultation with the doctors those tablets can be included in daily intake.

• More intake of home cooked fresh food must be emphasized to keep a check on level sugar in the body.

Nursing Care in Diabetes:

What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a chronic, ie requiring lifelong care, characterized by increased levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood above the normal range. The sugars together with fats are used as energy source. To use it, your body needs insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas. When an insulin deficiency, ie when not secreted or lack in the necessary quantity, appears diabetes, raising the blood sugar levels.
Diabetes is a common disease in the world today there are 140 million diabetics. In Spain it is estimated that there are about 2 million, but half of them do not know they are.
Types of Diabetes:
There are two major types of diabetes:

Diabetes Type I
Type I diabetes, occurs mainly in children and young people, and in general in people under 30 years. The onset is sudden, with symptoms very striking. There is a marked thinning of the onset of symptoms.
Represents 10 to 15% of all forms of diabetes. The p?nceras not produce insulin, so it must be administered.
Diabetes Type II
No insulin dependent
Type II diabetes, occurs in people over age 40. The beginning is slow and gradual inconspicuous symptoms and may go unnoticed. Cursa geralmente with obesity and weight loss is often lacking when it appears.
It is the most common form of diabetes, representing over 85% of cases.
The pancreas still produces insulin but insufficiently so, being able to deal with regime initially and antidiabetic pills.
Symptoms of Diabetes:

Characteristic Symptoms of Diabetes

1. – The more urine (polyuria): Excess sugar is excreted by the kidney, dragging large amount of water to dissolve it, which is why more urine ae.

2. – Much drinking (polydipsia): To compensate for fluid loss.

3. – Thinning: When not used sugar, burn fat and reduces weight.

4. – Increased appetite (polyphagia): The more you eat the higher the blood level.

5. – Tiredness
Secondary Symptoms

– Generalized itching or genitals.
– Propensity to skin infections (paronychia, boils).
– Delay in wound healing.
– Gum infections.
– Loosening of teeth.
– Pain and tingling in the extremities.
– Vision changes.

Insulin treatment:

Most patients achieved good control with diet alone or supplemented with oral anti diabetics. A third of insulin needed for full compensation.

Rapid Action:

It has a crystalline appearance, starts working within half an hour of injection and lasts 6-8 hours.
No need to shake the vial before use.

Time delay:

Its effect is slower but more lasting, is achieved by the addition of retarding substances that give it its Turbidity may Intermediate action, acts at 2 hours after injection and lasts 12 to 24 hours.
The long-acting start acting at 2-3 hours and its action comes after 24 – 36 hours.
It is necessary to shake the vial gently rotating the palms, to homogenize the product.
The technique of insulin injection:

The injection should be performed after loading completely syringe. Before be cleaning the skin with an alcohol swab. With the thumb and index finger of the left hand pinch the skin and subcutaneous tissue, forming a crease where the needle is inserted perpendicular or angled slightly by region. The subcutaneous injection is in the fat that is below the skin.

Before injecting verify that we have not punctured into a blood vessel, which is tested by gently pulling the plunger and check that no blood appears in the syringe.

Insulin must be injected each time in a different place, this prevents hardening and bulges.

Injection sites are the anterolateral outer thighs, on the outside of the arms, buttocks and the front of the abdomen.

Nurses must teach correct technique and explain that she should be normal and lose their fears and concerns.

Diabetic diet:

The diabetic diet is a mainstay of diabetes treatment, all patients must fulfill, obtaining compensation over a third of diabetics.

Not all foods raise blood sugar equally through diet is to achieve optimal weight, the normal development in the case of children, and keep blood sugar levels as close to normal.

The balance on a diet of nutrient components foods is necessary for any person:

Carbohydrates produce energy (calories gram provides 4). It is found mainly in foods such as cereals, pulses, potatoes and various fruits.

Fats produce much energy, they are mainly oil, margarine, butter, lard, shortening, etc. …

Proteins serve mainly to form tissues, muscles, etc … The animal received mainly of meat, fish, eggs, milk and fish. Those of plant origin are mainly found in legumes.

Vitamins and minerals have no caloric value and received mainly through vegetables, vegetables and fruits.

The meal plan: the number of them will depend on many factors, such as age, sex, physical activity and the presence or absence of overweight. Usually it a diet of 1,500 Kcal. The cast of the immediate principles should be as follows:
– 50 to 60% as carbohydrates.
– 25 to 30% as fat.
– 15% as fat.

It should avoid simple carbohydrates or simple sugars. Protein should be at least 50% of animal origin. Fats should come from vegetables in half.

The number of meals is recommended 6. Three main meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner) and three intermediate midmorning snack and before bed) to avoid abrupt changes in sugar.

Foods rich in fiber are recommended as they help to reduce the oscillations of sugar, it is recommended by the so-called grain products.

Special diabetic foods are not generally recommended.

They should avoid taking sugary foods like cakes, pastries, cookies and sweetened with saccharin.

You should not drink alcohol because they provide calories and can unbalance the diet.

Soft drinks are not recommended because of its high sugar content.

Equivalence tables can use food to change others.

Diabetic standard menu:


1 cup skim milk, alone or with coffee, tea (no sugar, saccharin or reel –
1/2 piece of bread with olive oil, cheese or tomato.


1 piece of fruit.


A dish of meat or fish or vegetable stew / grains / pasta
Accompaniment: salad or vegetables or potatoes (baked or boiled).
1/4 piece of bread.
Non fat yogurt or fruit or cheese.


1 piece of fruit.
1 skimmed yogurt or a glass of skim milk.


A dish of meat or fish or vegetable stew / grains / pasta
Accompaniment: salad or vegetables or potatoes (baked or boiled).
1/4 piece of bread.
Nonfat yogurt or fruit or cheese.

Before bed:

1 fruit or 1 yogurt or 1 cup of skim milk.
Exercise and Diabetes:

Exercise, along with diet and medication diabetes education, one of the pillars on which treatment is based.

Improved Glycemic control: The exercise causes a decrease in blood glucose, to be used by the muscle as energy source.

Promotes weight loss: At work also consumed muscular fat, and help combat obesity.

Reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease: With physical activity lowers cholesterol and other fats and prevents cardiovascular disease.

Have positive psychological effects and increased self-esteem: It produces a sense of well psychophysics.

Exercise is essential in the treatment of diabetes.

People with diabetes controlled exercise is indicated decreases blood glucose and decreases the need for insulin and oral.

For people with uncontrolled diabetes (+ 300 mg. / Dl and / or the presence of acetone in the urine) is not recommended because it increases the imbalance.

Recommendations for the year:

Exercise should be regular (daily, Keeping the same, with the same intensity and duration):

They prevent the coincidence of the maximum action of the medication. A good time is after meals.

It must be done in accordance with the age, physical condition and health status of the person.

After 40 before exercise is recommended and performed a comprehensive review of the cardiovascular system.

Avoid Situations :

– Injuries of large and small vessels.
– Injuries of nerves.
– Kidney damage the retina or advanced.
– Diabetes decompensated (+ 300 mg. / Dl)
– The nature of the sport or exercise, such as:
– Climbing (by the danger of hypoglycemia and loss of consciousness).
– Scuba diving (for the risk of hypoglycemia, and loss of consciousness).
– Those who pose a risk of trauma (boxing).
– The high competitiveness involving (excessive emotional stress).

The foot care:

Diabetic patients are more likely to have foot problems than other people.

When you have diabetes, foot care is essential. Since the circulation in the feet is reduced, the nerves become sensitive menso and are more prone to infections.

The problems begin with any little injury (abrasion, wound, crack, etc …). These wounds become infected. The infected tissues are inflamed, requiring increased blood supply, not being always available, as a result of poor circulation, and promotes the spread of infection.

Foot care:

– Keep your feet clean daily with soap and warm water. Dry them well without rubbing, especially between the toes, taking into account not leave them wet. If your skin is dry and flaky use Vaseline.
– Watch yourself feet daily, if you see an abnormality you should consult with your doctor or nurse.
– Keep nails clean and short, cutting them horizontally without rushing in the corners, better use lime scissors.
– Take your feet well wrapped, using thin wool socks or cotton, that will change daily.
– Use a flexible shoe, comfortable and well adjusted. Make sure that the tip is wide to prevent scratches. If you use a new shoe, its use should be gradual to avoid chafing.
– Do not walk barefoot or in sandals.
– Use treatments to remove corns and calluses, use scissors or instruments not affiliated.
– Zoom to foot stoves and braziers or apply hot water bottles.
– Do not use stockings, socks that compress too.

Diabetes is controllable and can be prevented if proper care and attention to the body is given. Nursing diagnosis for diabetes becomes easy if person is careful about their own health.